Snake Bites: Identification, Symptoms and Treatment

Snake Bites

The injuries that snake bites can cause range from mild to severe, but the chance of dying from one in the U.S. is virtually zero. People can usually survive venomous bites if they seek immediate medical attention.

Snake bites are uncommon in the United States, where they are very rarely fatal. Not all species of snake are venomous. Knowing which snake has bitten a person will help with treatment. All bites from snakes require medical attention, even if the snake is nonvenomous. Proper wound care can help prevent infection and limit how severe the injury becomes.

It is vital never to assume that a snake is nonvenomous without first consulting an expert. The misclassification of snake species could be fatal.

snake bites

In this article, we shed light on snake bite symptoms and how to identify venomous and nonvenomous snakes in America. We also cover treatment and first aid for bites from snakes.

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Fast Facts:

About 7,000–8,000 people get venomous snake bites in the U.S. each year, but only five of them die as a result. All venomous snakes in North America are either pit vipers or coral snakes. The vast majority of venomous bites are from pit vipers, and 50 percent of these are from rattlesnakes. Snakes will not bite humans unless they feel threatened, so leaving them alone is the best strategy for preventing a bite. Dead snakes can still bite, so avoid handling any snake in the wild.

Symptoms of snake bite

Usually, people know right away if a snake has bitten them. However, these animals can strike quickly and disappear before people have time to react. Most snake bites can cause pain and swell around the bite. Those that are venomous may also cause fever, a headache, convulsions, and numbness. However, these symptoms can also occur due to intense fear following the bite.

Bites can cause an allergic reaction in some people, which may include anaphylaxis. All venomous snakes can deliver dry bites, which are bites that do not inject venom. They do this because they have limited venom stores, so they save venom where possible. According to estimates, 20–25 percent of pit viper bites and 50 percent of coral snake bites are dry bites.

Symptoms of venomous snake bites

Venomous snakes have two fangs that deliver venom when they bite. A venomous snake bite will usually leave two clear puncture marks. In contrast, a nonvenomous bite tends to leave two rows of teeth marks.

It can be difficult to tell the difference between puncture wounds from venomous and nonvenomous snakes. People should seek medical attention for all snake bites.

The typical symptoms of a venomous snake bite include:

Two puncture wounds
swelling and pain around the bite area
redness and bruising around the bite area
numbness of the face, especially in the mouth
elevated heart rate
difficulty breathing
dizziness
weakness
headaches
blurred vision
excessive sweating
fever
thirst
nausea
vomiting
diarrhea
fainting
convulsions

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Symptoms of nonvenomous snake bites

Nonvenomous snakes do not produce toxins. Unlike venomous snakes, they do not have fangs. Instead, they have rows of teeth. Also,

pain near the bite area
bleeding
swelling and redness near the bite area
itching near the bite area

Without treatment, nonvenomous bites can lead to skin infections and necrosis, or tissue death, so it is essential to look after the wound. Bites can also cause allergic reactions in some people.

How to identify venomous snakes

Although most snakes in the U.S. are not venomous, several types of snakes are. People should treat all snake bites as though the snake were venomous and seek immediate medical attention.

There are two primary groups of venomous snake in the U.S.:

Pit vipers (Crotalinae), which include rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths
coral snakes (Elapidae)

Within the groups, venomous snakes often have similar features, such as a triangular head (pit vipers), bright colors (coral snakes), or a rattle (rattlesnakes).

People can identify pit vipers by looking for a small depression, or pit, sitting between the eye and nostril on both sides of the head. This pit contains a heat-sensing organ that many nonvenomous snakes do not have.

The following sections describe how to identify venomous snakes in the U.S.

Rattlesnakes snakerattle

It is easy to identify rattlesnakes by the segmented rattle on the end of their tails. Rattlesnakes use their rattles to scare off predators.

There are many different species of rattlesnake in the U.S., and they vary in size and appearance. However, they all have relatively heavy bodies and diamond-shaped heads.

Species of rattlesnake that live in North America include:

timber rattlesnakes
prairie rattlesnakes
diamondbacks
sidewinders
North American massasauga
pygmy rattlesnakes

Rattlesnakes live in a diverse range of habitats, including prairies, deserts, and forests, and they prefer warmer climates. People may see rattlesnakes sunbathing on rocks or burrowed in the shade of bushes.

Cottonmouth or water moccasin

snakecutton

Cottonmouth snakes, or water moccasins, get their name from the white, cotton-like appearance of the inside of their mouths.

They are around 50–55 inches long and either dark brown or black. Sometimes, these snakes have very faint crossbands on their bodies. Young cottonmouth snakes have very distinctive orange and yellow crossband patterns.

Cottonmouth snakes are mainly present in southeastern states, such as Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi. They spend most of their lives in or around water. These snakes do not scare easily, and they can attack underwater.

Although these snakes are more aggressive than other species, they only strike when they feel threatened and will flee if they have the chance.

Their venom is incredibly toxic because it breaks down blood cells and prevents blood from clotting. Bites from a cottonmouth can cause:

extreme pain
hemorrhaging
permanent
tissue damage

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Coral snake

snakecoral

Coral snakes belong to the Elapidae family. They have alternating black, yellow, and red bands along their bodies.

People often confuse the coral snake with the nonvenomous king snake, but their patterns consist of different arrangements of colored bands. The coral snake has red bands with yellow rings surrounding them, while the king snake has black rings surrounding red bands.

Coral snakes typically live in southern states, such as Texas and the Carolinas. They prefer wooded and marshy habitats.

Coral snakes have neurotoxic venom, which affects nerve tissue and disrupts the communication pathways between the brain and other parts of the body.

Copperhead

snakecopperhead

Copperhead snakes are fairly large, heavy-bodied snakes, which range in length from around 24 to 40 inches. They have triangular heads and vertical pupils. Their bodies are tan or brown with darker hourglass-shaped bands along with them.

Copperhead snakes mainly live in central and eastern states, but they are absent from most of Florida and south-central Georgia.

These snakes prefer forested areas and often make their home in rocky areas. Some live in marshy areas near rivers. Copperhead snakes are not aggressive.
How to treat snake bites

People should get medical attention for all snake bites. On receiving a bite, a person can use first aid to improve their condition.

If someone gets a snake bite, they should take the following steps while awaiting medical attention:

-Remain calm
-call 911 or call for emergency immediately
-gently wash the area with soap and water if possible
-remove tight clothing or jewelry because the area around the bite is likely to swell
-keep the bite area below the heart if possible
-do not attempt to catch or kill the snake

If a doctor suspects that someone has received a bite from a venomous snake, they will give them antivenom medication. It helps if the person knows which species of snake bit them, as different snake bites require different types of antivenom.

There are many misconceptions about first aid for snake bites. The following list describes what to avoid doing after a snake bite:

-do not cut into the bite wound
-do not wrap a cloth above the wound to restrict blood flow
-do not apply ice to the wound
-do not suck the venom from the wound
-do not use a suction device to remove venom
-do not give a person medication unless a healthcare professional gives this instruction

When to see a doctor

People who receive bites from venomous snakes should call 911 and move to the nearest medical facility immediately. A healthcare professional will perform a physical examination and use diagnostic tests to determine the best course of treatment.

Where possible, a doctor will give the person a specific antivenom. The antivenom will depend on the type of snake responsible for the bite.

If the bite comes from a nonvenomous snake, a person should still seek medical attention to receive proper wound care and prevent infection.
Preventing snake bites

In most cases, snake bites are preventable. Snakes are not aggressive toward humans unless they feel threatened, and they will attempt to flee before biting a human.

People can usually avoid snake bites by doing the following:

avoiding handling snakes in the wild
staying away from places where there may be snakes, such as areas with tall grass, shrubs, or piles of rocks
wearing boots, thick pants, and gloves at all times when working outdoors
giving a snake room to get away if one appears
avoiding trying to kill or capture a snake

To Round It Up

Snake bites are rarely fatal as long as people receive proper medical attention. Most snake bites cause localized pain and swelling. The symptoms of snake bites vary depending on the species of snake and whether or not their bite contained venom.

There are very few aggressive snakes, and most snakes will avoid humans. They only attack in self-defense, so people should not attempt to interact with these animals in the wild. If someone comes into contact with a snake, they should back away slowly, giving the snake enough space to retreat.

-Don’t ever assume a snake is non-venomous. Always Stay Safe.

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